Saturday, February 16, 2008

Americans and Canadians rank last in GW awareness

Americans and Canadians rank near last in global warming awareness - Nielson survey

Seeing as Al Gore is American and CNN is in America, we might rightly think that Americans, and by inference, Canadians, are the world leaders in global warming awareness. I'm not talking about leaders like US president George W. Bush who insisted that the "only superpower on Earth" should not play a leading role in combating global warming, or like Alberta premier Ed Stelmach who is intent on developing the tar sands until the biosphere of planet Earth is cooked. I'm talking about the general population who watch the news in high definition and living colors and read the New York Times or Washington post or Toronto Star of Vancouver Sun. Surely, we must be the most aware the people in the world.

Wrong. In October 2006, the AC Nielson Company, with 42,000 employees in 100 countries, surveyed 25,408 internet users in 46 countries on all continents except the Antarctic, and came out with the following findings, in which Americans and Canadians came in near last and/or dead last. (See )

I'm frankly puzzled by this. Could it be corporate funded skepticism that derailed us? Anthropocentricism? Religious dogma? The don't-worry-be-happy syndrome? I even argued with myself by saying, well, the internet is far more used per capita in the US and Canada than in, say, China or Zimbawe. A Deliverance-like hillbilly might be online posting in hunting sites and here comes the survey, and he hates Al Gore anyway, whereas a peasant in Sinkiang, China, would likely not be online at all for him to type, in Chinese of course, "Global what?" But even so, how could ANYone in the US or Canada have NEVER heard of global warming? It is just too hard to believe.

Well, believe it.

To the question "Have you heard or read anything about the issue of global warming?", a whopping 12% of Americans (the highest in the world) answered a firm "NO", and another 4% answered a waivering "Don't Know" (tantamount to "Global what?"), meaning of course "NO", adding up to 16%, translating to 300 million x 16% = 4.8 million Americans never having once heard of global warming. I didn't know there were that many hillbillies.

And of course, if a person knows nothing about global warming, he would know even less about its potentially devastating effects on life on Earth including the total desertification of the Amazon within decades, which currently holds upwards of 5 million species.

And of course, if there is no awareness, there is even less action.

This confirms for me the need for new and ever broader awareness-raising programs including my new campaign "Safeguarding Wildlife from Mass Extinction due to Global Warming".

Following are five very revealing charts from the Nielson survey. Be prepared to be ashamed.

Anthony Marr, founder
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)

Tuesday, February 12, 2008

The Amazon Desert?

Amazon to become soy plantation, or savannah, or desert. Your preference?

I’ve never met her, but ever since I was a child, I’ve been in love with her. And I’ve vowed to do all I can to protect her from harm, for her own sake, and through her, the world. Her name is Amazon.

Now, I see that she is falling apart, and probably dying. How do I feel? How would you feel?

Biodiversity-wise, she still comprises a quarter of all Earth’s species today. Considering a minimum of 20 million species in total, the Amazon alone hold 5 million species. I thought the Great Amazon Rainforest becoming the Great Amazon Savannah or the Great Amazon corn/soy/sugar-cane plantation were terrible. 5 million species is what we stand to lose if the Great Amazon Rainforest becomes the Great Amazon Desert – within decades. Everyday we do nothing or keep doing what we've been doing means several thousand more species will be added to the grand total. Developing the Alberta tar sands alone may mean a million species or more. Are we really that anthropocentric and selfish?

As in my last article about the melting Arctic, I present to you below a collection of articles pulled from the internet with “global warming Amazon”. I did not pick and choose which to include and which to exclude for a biased view. I’ve included the words of global-warming skeptics and deniers and nay-sayers, as well as CNN, New York Times and Washington Post and even Greenpeace. And I have included articles from Brazil itself. Again, I suggest first and foremost to scan the titles from beginning (1988) to the present (2008), and then choose a few to go in depth.

You will notice an alarming development (to skeptics: Go ahead, call me an “alarmist” and make my day.) In 2004, an “alarmist” predicted oncoming drought for the Amazon. In 2005, a sever drought did descend upon the Amazon, which raised further alarms. In 2006, the drought returned, leading scientists to warn that the Amazon could not withstand another round. 1n 2007, the drought returned with a vengeance, and many Amazon subsystems were devastated or have downright collapsed. Will there be Drought 4, Drought 5, Drought 6…? We have only 5 months to see about Drought 4. So stay tuned.

Meanwhile, in the latter half of 2007 and early 2008, the rate of direct destruction – by slash-and-burn and chainsaw – accelerates, despite Brazil’s promise to curb deforestation for the Nth year.

And let’s not forget fossil fuels exploration and development in the Amazon Basin..

Several plausible scenarios have predicted Amazon turning into a giant corn, soy and sugar-cane plantation for biofuel, or into a giant savannah which would suit cattle barons and McDonalds well, or into a giant desert (for imported camels?). The real picture is probably a combination of all the above, all bad.

As always, the solution-coin has two sides – conservation and technology. And the key words are just three - immediately or sooner. And the whole coin is just one – our will.


1988-08-12 New York Times - Vast Amazon fires, man-made, linked to global warming

1996 Rainforest Facts

1999-01-09 Agence France-Presse – NASA planes to participate in Amazon global warming study

1999-04-14 BBC News – Amazon forest loss estimate doubles

2001-03-27 Discovery Channel - Amazon may take some heat off global warming

2001-06-26 National Geographic - Loss of Amazon rainforest may come sooner than expected

2001-12-13 National Geographic – Adult Amazon trees gain mass – due to higher CO2 concentration?

2002-04-11 - Accounting Scandal! Accountant reveals new carbon source

2002-05-01 from S. America – The Amazon rainforest

2002-11-26 - Amazon forest faces climate catastrophe

2003-02-16 - Global warming endangers Amazon

2003-02-17 The Guardian, UK – Global warming endangers Amazon,12374,897152,00.html

2003-09-09 - Global warming may threaten Amazon

2003-11-04 New York Times - Deep in the Amazon – vast question about the climate

2003-12 – Preserving the Amazon – Step 1 – Defeat fatalism

2004-03-10 - CO2 is key suspect in rainforest change

2004-04-06 The Why Files - Drought predicted - bye-bye amazing Amazonia (excellent - predicts drought ahead - see droughts ahead)

2004-10-22 Global warming: nature’s pressure points

2005 Amazon Prosperity - Amazon botanicals bring health and wealth

2005-02-08 Climate Ark - Amazon “breathing uneasily”

2005-02-15 Brazil - Global warming might turn the Amazon into scrubland

2005-03-29 - Worst Amazon drought in 40 years linked to global warming

2005-10 US Water News Online - Major drought hits Amazon rainforest

2005-10-21 Amazon drought – deforestation and climate change to blame

2005-12-02 Earth Observatory - Tropical Atlantic cooling and African deforestation correlate to drought, report scientists

2005-12-05 Earth Observatory – Why the Amazon is so rich in species

2005-12-08 Earth Observatory - ORNL-led study shows forests thrive with increased carbon dioxide levels

2005-12-08 Terra Daily - Global warming to hit rivers in Mediterranean, Amazon, Midwest

2005-12-11 – “Unprecedented” drought cripples life along Amazon

2005-12-13 Earth Observatory - Amazon tree much older than assumed, raising questions on global climate impact of region

2005-12-13 Science Daily - Changes to land cover may enhance global warming in Amazon

2005-12-22 Earth Observatory - Storing carbon to combat global warming may cause other environmental problems, study suggests

2006-03-22 WWF – Climate change a threat to Amazon rainforests

2006-03-23 Planet Ark – Greater efforts needed to save Amazon rainforest

2006-03-24 - Emerging Technology Trends – Can we save the Amazon rainforest?

2006-04-27 McDonald’s eating up the Amazon

2006-07-19 BBC News - How climate change and logging are affecting the Amazon

2006-07-23 The Independent - Amazon rainforest could become a desert

2006-07-23 Climate Ark - Amazon at climate-caused desertification tipping point

2006-07-23 The Independent - Dying Forest – One year to save the Amazon

2006-07-24 NZ Herald World – Disastrous drought second year in a row – one more year could tip the whole system into destruction

2006-07-24 Green Diary - Amazon rainforest turning to desert, triggering irreversible global warming

2006-07-24 Terra Nature – A disaster to take everyone’s breath away

2006-07-25 - The Sietch Blog - Amazon could become desert

2006-07-28 Fundamentalist Christianity – Amazon rainforest “could become a desert”

2006-07-29 Minding the Planet - Amazon desertification may start next year - Global warming could increase by 50%

2006-07-29 Science Buzz - The Amazon rainforest needs rain

2006-08-01 BlueGreen Blog - Amazon in 2nd year of drought, cannot withstand a third

2006-08-06 Woods Hole Research Center – Senior scientist challenges Independent’s article

2006-08-22 The future of the Amazon – a week in Manaus

2006-10-23 - Amazon conservation efforts must come soon
to save world's largest rainforest says leading scientist

2006-11-15 Recuperation of the Amazon forest must be immediate

2006-12-05 Green Clippings - Brazil announces massive rainforest reserve

2006-12-29 Intl Herald-Tribune – Global warming could transform Amazon into savannah in 100 years, Brazil researchers say

2006-12-29 Washington Post – Researchers: Warming may change Amazon

2006-12-30 - Global warming may destroy Amazon rainforest

2006-12-30 CTV - Global warming may change Amazon: researchers

2006-12-30 AP – Global warming will likely destroy the Amazon

2006-12-31 The Sydney Morning Herald – Drying Amazon burning – the Amazon feedback loop

2007 Woods Hole Research Center - Amazon Ecological Program

2007 AOL video – Global Warming – What you need to know – Amazon tipping

2007-01-02 Softpedia – Amazon rainforest will turn into a savannah in 100 years due to global warming

2007-02-27 CNN, Anderson Cooper 360 – Hope and despair for Amazon rainforest’s future

2007-02-07 MWC – Da Silva blame rich for global warming while defending Brazil

x2007-03-20 Center for Global Development - On Global Warming and Ethanol: Good use of World Bank presidency bully pulpit, Mr. Wolfowitz!

2007-03-23 BBC News – Amazon “faces more deadly droughts”

2007-03-27 Laramie, WY – Global warming predicted to create novel climates

2007-04 Planet Earth – Amazon: the beginning of the end?

2007-04-06 Fox News - Global warming is threat to Great Barrier Reef, Amazon rainforests and Mexican deserts,2933,264589,00.html

2007-05-10 - Amazon becoming savannah

2007-05-14 The Independent - Deforestation – a hidden cause of global warming

2007 05-22 Amazon facts

2007-06-27 Science Line - A dry horizon for the Amazon

2007-07-31 New York Times - Brazil, alarmed, reconsiders policy on climate change

2007-08-13 Associated Press – Brazil says Amazon deforestation is down

2007-08-18 Global Warming Watch - Amazon deforestation drops 25%, Brazil says

2007-09-21 Scientific Blogging - Global warming puzzle: Amazon rainforest showed better growth during drought

x2007-09-22 The Strata-Sphere - more skepticism, denial and jeering

2007-09-23 Associated Content – Amazon drought and how forest reacts

2007-09-26 Science Daily - Amazon forest shows unexpected resiliency during drought

2007-10 Nature Conservancy mag - Soyfields invade Amazon rainforest

2007-10-06 Privatization of Amazon and IIRSA

2007-10-16 The Global Warming Archive - Amazon burns for biofuels

2007-10-17 How not to solve global warming – NAFTA for the Amazon

2007-10-17 Reuters – Amazon loggers hold Greenpeace activists captive

2007-10-22 Free Republic - Amazon fires among worst ever

x2007-10-24 Uncommon Descent (Intelligent Design) - Global warming puzzle – Amazon getting greener

2007-10-30 Malaria no longer eradicated thanks to global warming

2007-11-05 NPR - Amazon fire wars exacerbate global warming

2007-11-06 NPR – Fire begets fire, and the Brush Land Scenario

2007-11-29 Telegraph, UK – Amazon rainforest “could resist climate change if…”

2007-11-30 Earth Talk Env. News – Climate change and the amazing Amazon rainforest

2007-11-30 - Options for saving the Amazon in the face of climate change

2007-12 Biofuels threaten to accelerate global warming

2007-12-06 - Global warming accelerates the destruction of the Amazon

2007-12-06 Washington Post – WWF: Global warming will destroy 60% of Amazon by 2030

2007-12-07 China’s People’s Daily Online - Global warming will destroy Amazon

2007-12-07 Amazon rainforest disappearing faster than previously believed

2007-12-08 eNews - Tropical forests must be protected, says Indonesian minister

2007-12-11 999 Today - Climate change speeds up Amazon’s destruction

2007-12-13 All American Patriot - Scientists fear Amazon rainforest may face early destruction

2007-12-17 Global Warming Information - Amazon at risk – action needed now

2008 – Amazon rainforest loss

2008 World ecological problems: Amazon rainforest

2008-01 Hydrogen NOW! - Runaway methane global warning – the greatest threat

2008-01-02 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil - Researchers say that warming may change Amazon

2008-01-03 USA Today – WWF - Global warming to destroy 60% of Amazon by 2030

2008-01-10 What country is most responsible for the destruction of the Amazon rainforest?

2008-01-16 Reuters – Amazon deforestation seen surging

2008-01-17 ENN - Amazon deforestation seen surging in 2008, partly due to surge in global biofuel demand

2008-01-18 Planet Ark - Amazon deforestation surges again first time in 4 years

2008-01-18 Orange County Register – Ancient Amazon trees redefines Amazon as carbon sink

2008-01-20 Destruction of Amazon rainforest accelerates

2008-01-21 NZ Herald – Amazon rainforest destruction quickens

2008-01-24 - Amazon deforestation jumps in the second half of 2007

2008-01-24 Brazil says Amazon rainforest destruction soars again

2008-01-25 TIME/CNN - The Amazon gets less and less green,8599,1707121,00.html

2007-01-25 - 7000 sq km of Amazon destroyed in late 2007 – Greenpeace

2008-01-26 Eco-Worldly - Amazon rainforest vanishing faster – Brazil drafts emergency plan

2008-01-27 - How much would it cost to end Amazon deforestation?

2008-02 - Amazon - half of the remain forest could soon disappear

2008-02 Amazon rainforest videos

2008-02 The Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming – Rising CO2 levels disrupt rainforest growth patterns

x2008-02 Michael Crichton on Bjorn Lomborg’s Cool It: The Skeptical Environmentalist's Guide to Global Warming

2008-02 SAGE - Global warming and global ecosystems

2008-02 The Weather Channel – The Amazon remains a mystery, but for how long?

2008-02-03 The Hindu - Scientists urgently seek answers for Amazon puzzle

2008-02-03 USA Today - Scientists puzzle over Amazon's role in warming world

2008-02-04 MSNBC - Amazon forest still a global warming mystery: Scientists working to determine if it is a net carbon emitter or sink

2008-02-04 Reuters – Tipping points seen for Greenland ice and the Amazon

2008-02-04 The Times of India - Amazon research raises questions

2008-02-05 AP – Forecast Earth – solutions urgently sought (part 2 of 3),

2008-02-05 - New uakari monkey discovered in Amazon

2008-02-05 - Overfishing may hurt Amazon forest trees

2008-02-06 - France blocks controversial rainforest goldmine in French Guyana

2008-02-06 - Climate may experience sudden changes within years

2008-02-07 Al Jazeera English - Lula blames rich for global warming while defending Brazil

2008-02-07 - First rainforest-for-carbon-credits deal becomes a reality

2008-02-08 - Biofuels are worsening global warming

2008-02-09 Yahoo! News - Converting land for biofuel worsens global warming

2008-02-07 YouTube – Ecoagents reversing global warming, saving Amazon rainforest

2008-02-08 Earth Times - Biofuels may promote, not slow, global warming,biofuels-may-promote-not-slow-global-warming-report--feature.html

2008-02-08 eNews - Study shows biofuel farms accelerates global warming

x2008-02-11 – Let Brazilians sort out the problems of the Amazon (Is this like “Let the fox guard the hen house”?)

2008-02-11 CNN – All About: forests and carbon trading

Anthony Marr, founder
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)

Saturday, February 9, 2008

2007 - tipping year for Arctic meltdown

2007 - possibly the tipping year for Arctic meltdown that "stunned experts"; what of 2008?

What were you doing in the summer of 2007? In mid-July, I was speaking at the AR2007 conference in Los Angeles (, and I even participated in a plenary on global warming and human population. Then, I spent the next 4 months driving through 30 states working intensely on the deer hunting, bowhunting, urban deer culling and deer immunocontraception issues, as well as forming the Global Wildlife Alliance with member groups in about as many states. But due to my laser-like concentration on the deer and hunting issues, something of enormous global importance slipped right beneath my radar, even though there were newspaper articles and newscasts galore on the subject, and perhaps it did yours too.

I’m talking about the massively record-breaking melting of the Arctic sea ice as well as the Greenland ice sheet.

Now, it is February 2008, and what happened in the summer of 2007 is history. But it is not over, because the summer of 2008 may take it yet to a new height, and no scientist in the world, except those still incredibly in denial, would dare to dismiss the possibility, or even lower its probability.

I have since amassed hundreds of articles on the subject, about 150 of which I present below for your interest. The best way I would suggest that you approach this vast amount of reading is to not to read them, at least not to begin with, but to just read their titles from beginning (1995) to end (2008). There is nothing sacred about 1995; it just happens to be the year of the first article I’ve included in this list. There is nothing particularly sacred about now either; it just happens to be the time of this writing. There were many relevant articles before 1995 and surely there will be amazing occurrences in the articles to come, especially those publishing in the summer of 2008.

You will notice that the tone of the titles of the earlier articles are more or less tentative, but as time rolled on, from year to year, it became more and more tangible, then definite, then seriously concerned, then surprised, then amazed, then unnerved, then shocked, then stunned, then horrified… Also, you will notice that the estimate of the remaining life-span of the Arctic ice cap and the Greenland icesheet was shortened from -50% by 2040 to a complete meltdown by 2013 the closer the estimators approached the summer of 2007.

Of course, for every alarm sounded, there would be the skeptics who would call the alarm sounder an “alarmist”. I have included one such debunking article dated January 28, 2007. Obviously what happened in the summer of 2007 totally exonerated the “alarmist” and demolished the debunker. Still, even after the great plunge of 2007, the skeptics and cynics are again mouthing that it was nothing but an “anomaly”, and that the ice was reforming. Well, one of the reasons is called “winter”. And the summer of 2008 will likely silence them again.

A general consensus amongst the articles was that the 2007 Arctic meltdown exceeded expectations by three fold. Indeed, the titles below contain phases as “stunned experts” and “shocked scientists”. And what was expected was already quite dire.

This is a direct revelation from nature not to be slighted, much less ignored. The same computer models that underestimated the 2007 Arctic ice melting rate are the same models that estimated only 2-4 degree increases in the global temperature by 2100, and a moderate 30% extinction rate. These same models also underestimated the role in global warming of the greenhouse gas called methane.

Methane as a greenhouse gas (GHG) is 20 times more potent than carbon dioxide. The Arctic permafrost contains an immense quantity of methane stored in the solid form of methane clathrate. If the permafrost is melted, the atmospheric GHG would increase by 50%. The current atmospheric GHG concentration is 370 ppm. Scientists say that the maximum should be capped at 400 ppm to prevent “tipping” the system into a runaway greenhouse effect. A 50% GHG concentration rise means 550ppm, deep in the danger zone if not past the point of no return. And we haven’t even considered the methane stored in clathrate form on and under the continental shelves around the world.

If methane is release as free gas into the atmosphere, it will raise the global temperature even higher, which will melt even more permafrost which will release more methane… a positive feedback loop that could push the global temperature spirally out of control. And this is only one of several positive feedback loops.

Another is the albedo feedback loop, where less ice reflects less solar heat, causing more heat absorption, temperature increases and ice melting.

In the context of global warming, there is such a thing as “tipping points”. And nine “tipping elements” have been identified in which tipping points exist. I believe that no matter what field and discipline we specialize in, we should all know something about global warming, because it involves all life on Earth and for all time. The 9 tipping elements and their possible timeframes are:

1) Melting of Arctic sea-ice (approx 10+ years, small uncertainty). As sea-ice melts, it exposes a much darker ocean surface, which absorbs more radiation than white sea-ice so that the warming is amplified. This causes more rapid melting in summer and decreases ice formation in winter. Over the last 16 years ice cover during summer declined markedly. The critical threshold global mean warming may be between 0.5 to 2 degrees Celsius, but could already have been passed. One model shows a nonlinear transition to a potential new stable state with no arctic sea-ice during summer within a few decades.

2) Decay of the Greenland ice sheet (more than 300 years, small uncertainty). Warming over the ice sheet accelerates ice loss from outlet glaciers and lowers ice altitude at the periphery, which further increases surface temperature and ablation. The exact tipping point for disintegration of the ice sheet is unknown, since current models cannot capture the observed dynamic deglaciation processes accurately. But in a worst case scenario local warming of more than three degrees Celsius could cause the ice sheet to disappear within 300 years. This would result in a rise of sea level of up to seven meters.

3) Collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet (more than 300 years, large uncertainty). Recent gravity measurements suggest that the ice sheet is losing mass. Since most of the ice sheet is grounded below sea level the intrusion of ocean water could destabilize it. The tipping point could be reached with a local warming of five to eight degrees Celsius in summer. A worst case scenario shows the ice sheet could collapse within 300 years, possibly raising sea level by as much as five meters.

4) Collapse of the
Atlantic thermohaline circulation (approx 100 years, intermediate uncertainty). The circulation of sea currents in the Atlantic Ocean is driven by seawater that flows to the North Atlantic, cools and sinks at high latitudes. If the inflow of freshwater increases, e.g. from rivers or melting glaciers, or the seawater is warmed, its density would decrease. A global mean warming of three to five degrees Celsius could push the element past the tipping point so that deep water formation stops. Under these conditions the North Atlantic current would be disrupted, sea level in the North Atlantic region would rise and the tropical rain belt would be shifted.

5) Increase in the El Niño Southern Oscillation (approx 100 years, large uncertainty). The variability of this ocean-atmosphere mode is controlled by the layering of water of different temperatures in the Pacific Ocean and the temperature gradient across the equator. During the globally three degrees Celsius warmer early Pliocene ENSO may have been suppressed in favor of persistent El Niño or La Niña conditions. In response to a warmer stabilized climate, the most realistic models simulate increased El Niño amplitude with no clear change in frequency.

6) Collapse of the Indian summer monsoon (approx 1+ year, large uncertainty). The monsoon circulation is driven by a land-to-ocean pressure gradient. Greenhouse warming tends to strengthen the monsoon since warmer air can carry more water. Air pollution and land-use that increases the reflection of sunlight tend to weaken it. The Indian summer monsoon could become erratic and in the worst case start to chaotically change between an active and a weak phase within a few years.

7) Greening of the Sahara/Sahel and disruption of the West African monsoon (approx 10 years, large uncertainty). The amount of rainfall is closely related to vegetation climate feedback and sea surface temperatures of the Atlantic Ocean. Greenhouse gas forcing is expected to increase Sahel rainfall. But a global mean warming of three to five degrees Celsius could cause a collapse of the West African monsoon. This could lead either to drying of the Sahel or to wetting due to increased inflow from the West. A third scenario shows a possible doubling of anomalously dry years by the end of the century.

8) Dieback of the Amazon rainforest (approx 50 years, large uncertainty). Global warming and deforestation will probably reduce rainfall in the region by up to 30 percent. Lengthening of the dry season, and increases in summer temperatures would make it difficult for the forest to re-establish. Models project dieback of the Amazon rainforest to occur under three to four degrees Celsius global warming within fifty years. Even land-use change alone could potentially bring forest cover to a critical threshold.

9) Dieback of the Boreal Forest (approx 50 years, large uncertainty). The northern forests exhibit a complex interplay between tree physiology, permafrost and fire. A global mean warming of three to five degrees Celsius could lead to large-scale dieback of the boreal forests within 50 years. Under climate change the trees would be exposed to increasing water stress and peak summer heat and would be more vulnerable to diseases. Temperate tree species will remain excluded due to frost damage in still very cold winters.

Bear in mind that all of these estimate are uncertain, and some if not all could be gross underestimates. I refer to the time frame as well as the severity. No matter when it comes, a 6 degree global temperature rise is the tipping point of survivability of most life on Earth, and will doom the present-day Earth to the 6th mass extinction (already well in progress). The 3rd mass extinction, the End-Permian 251 million years ago, wiped out 75% of all land species and 95% of all marine species. The agent was indeed global warming.

This is not to say that the world is doomed. It is to say that if we carry on the way we have, which has channeled us into the current predicament to begin with, we would doom all life on Earth, the Earth itself, and us ourselves.

Arctic sea-ice and the Greenland ice sheet are regarded as the most sensitive tipping elements with the smallest uncertainty. Here are the sample articles that will give you a stunning vision of these two tipping elements in no uncertain terms:

1995-03-24 NERSC - The sea ice in the Arctic is melting, is this a sign of global warming?

1997 Greenpeace - Climate Change and Arctic Sea Ice

1998 The Arctic: the ocean, sea ice, icebergs, and climate

1999 UNEP – Thinning of Arctic sea ice

1999-04-20 USGCRP - Arctic sea ice: changes, causes, and implications

2000-05-25 The Arctic sea ice is melting- How long will it last?

2000-12-01 BBC News – Arctic sea ice “thins by almost half”

2001-12 Alaska Sea Ice Atlas

2001-12-03 – Implications of changes in Arctic sea ice

2003 NOAA - What changes have occurred in Arctic sea ice volume and dynamics over the past 50 years?

2003-01-01 NOAA - How does Arctic sea ice form and decay?

2003-05-07 NASA - Greenland ice melting

2003-10-24 Earth Observatory - Dwindling Arctic ice

2003-12-01 Space Daily - Shrinking Arctic tells many stories

2004-04-08 National Geographic News - Greenland melt may swamp LA and other coastal cities

2004-07-28 BBC News – Greenland ice melt “speeding up”

2005-06-29 NOAA Ocean Explorer – Arctic sea ice

2005-07 NASA - Record low for June Arctic sea ice

2005-07-11 NOAA Ocean Explorer – Arctic sea ice, channels of life

2005-09-21 - Arctic Sea Ice Shrinks to Record Low, Scientists Say

2005-09-21 Washington Post – Melting Arctic sea ice

2005-09-28 CTV – Global warming causing record Arctic ice melt

2005-09-28 NASA - Arctic sea ice continues to decline, Arctic temperatures continue to rise in 2005

2005-09-28 Sea ice decline intensifies – Summer Arctic sea ice falls far below average for fourth year, winter ice sees sharp decline, spring melt starts earlier.

2005-09-28 Softpedia - The Arctic sea ice is melting rapidly

2005-09-28 Steffen Research Group - Greenland melting*:IE-SearchBox&rlz=1I7SUNA&start=170&sa=N

2005-09-29 – Arctic ice meltdown continues rapid pace

2005-09-29 New Scientist - Melting of sea ice speeds up in Arctic

2005-09-30 The Herald, NZ – Arctic sea ice melts to all time low

2005-09-29 The Register – Arctic sea ice gone within a century?

2005-12-18 TIMES - Polar bears drown as ice shelf melts,,2087-1938132,00.html,,2087-1938132,00.html

2006-02-16 MSNBC – Greenland’s glaciers losing ice at faster rate

2006-03 14 The Independent - Arctic sea ice fails to re-form

2006-08-07 CU News – Record retreat of Arctic sea ice,1713,BDC_2448_4901625,00.html

2006-08-11 BBC News - Greenland ice melt faster than in 2004 – satellite measurements show

2006-08-11 Washington Post - Greenland’s melting ice sheet speeding up

2006-09-06 ABC News - An ice-free Arctic… happening before our eyes

2006-09-13 NASA – NASA sees rapid changes in Arctic sea ice

2006-09-15 Associated Press - 2 NASA studies report faster Arctic sea ice melt

2006-09-14 Rocky Mountain News - Scientists: Arctic sea ice tells of warming - Wintertime declines seen as strong sign of climate change,1299,DRMN_15_4991225,00.html

2006-09-14 IOL – Concern as Arctic sea ice shrinks

2006-09-14 Vive le Canada – Arctic ice melts in winter

2006-10-03 University of Colorado - Arctic sea ice declines again in 2006, say University of Colorado researchers

2006-10-04 ENS - Arctic sea ice melt accelerating

2006-10-04 Earth Times - Arctic Ocean losing more sea ice every year, scientists warn

2006-10-04 Globe & Mail - Arctic sea ice at all time low, researcher says

2006-10-04 - Arctic sea ice levels fall

2006-10-05 Al Jazeera English – “Global Warming” shrinks Arctic sea ice

2006-11-20 NOAA – New date show downward trend in Arctic sea ice

2006-12-11 UCAR - Abrupt Ice Retreat Could Produce Ice-Free Arctic Summers by 2040

2006-12-12 Arctic sea ice 'faces rapid melt' - The Arctic may be close to a tipping point that sees all-year-round ice disappear very rapidly in the next few decades, US scientists have warned.

2006-12-13 iTWire - Global warming to melt Arctic sea ice away by 2040

2007-01 Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory – Arctic sea ice changes in GFDL climate scenario experiments

2007-01-08 World Resources Institute - Melting Arctic sea ice threatens polar bears

2007-01-12 RealClimate – Arctic sea ice declines in the 21st Century + 127 responses

x2007-01-18 World Climate Report - Arctic forecast: Nordic sea ice expansion (proven wrong by what happened later same year, and the “alarmists” right.)

2007-03-15 Science Daily - Arctic sea ice decline may trigger climate change cascade

2007-03-16 The Guardian - Arctic ocean may lose all its ice by 2040, disrupting global weather

2007-03-16 Science - Perspectives on the Arctic's Shrinking Sea-Ice Cover

2007-03-16 The Independent - Collapse of Arctic sea ice 'has reached tipping-point'

2007-04-03 CBC News - Arctic sea ice vanishing: NASA

2007-04-30 MSNBC - Arctic sea ice melting much faster, experts find - Study indicates that U.N. reports on warming are too conservative

2007-04-30 USA Today – Arctic sea ice is melting 3 times faster than projected

2007-05-01 Herald Tribune - Arctic ice is melting faster, report says

2007-05-01 New York Times - Arctic sea ice melting faster, a study finds

2007-05-07 ePluribus Media - Arctic sea ice: going, going, gone.

2007-05-07 Scitizen - A Condensed Look at “Arctic sea Ice Decline: Faster Than Forecast?” - A new study indicates that the Arctic Ocean is losing its sea ice cover faster than is captured by the most advanced models used in the 2007 report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC).

2007-05-28 VOA News - Report says Arctic sea ice melting more quickly than thought

2007-06-29 ENS - Arctic sea ice extent hits record low

x2007-07-27 US Senate Committee - Latest Scientific Studies Refute Fears of Greenland Melt

2007-07-05 Earth Exploration Toolbook – Whither Arctic sea ice?

2007-08-10 Canwest News Service - Arctic sea ice shrinking at a record rate, says scientist

2007-08-10 RealClimate – Arctic sea ice watch

2007-08-11 ABC News - Arctic sea ice shrinks to record low

2007-08-13 Foreign Policy - Arctic sea ice melting faster than ever

2007-08-15 The Independent - Scientists warn Arctic sea ice is melting at its fastest rate since records began

2007-08-17 - Arctic sea ice shrinks to record low

2007-08-17 Discovery Channel – Arctic sea ice shrinks to new low

2007-08-17 NPR – Researchers: Arctic seas ice hits record low

2007-08-17 PlanetArk - Arctic sea ice expected to hit record low in Sept.

2007-08-20 ENS - Arctic sea ice extent hits record low

2007-08-20 National Geographic News - Arctic ice at all time low

2007-08-22 CNN - Arctic sea ice expected to hit record low (with video)

2007-09-04 The Guardian, UK - Loss of Arctic ice leaves experts stunned

2007-09-06 NOAA – Arctic regional sea ice to decline 40% before 2050

2007-09-09 Oregon Live - Greenland ice melt shocks scientists

2007-09-20 University of Colorado - Arctic sea ice bottoms out for 2007, shatters all time record low, Say CU-Boulder Scientists

2007-09-11 CNN – Arctic sea ice cover at record low

2007-09-14 - Arctic sea ice thickness only half of 2001 level

2007-09-20 Arctic sea ice cover record low (map)

2007-09-21 CBC News - Melting of Arctic sea ice shatters record

2007-09-22 Telegraphy, UK - Arctic sea ice 'melts to all-time low'

2007-09-26 Fox News - Arctic sea ice shrinking, thinning even in winter,2933,298013,00.html

2007-09-26 Wired Science - Arctic Sea Ice Melting Faster Than Expected

2007-09-26 WSWS – Arctic sea ice reaches record minimum

2007-09-27 USGS - Future retreat of Arctic sea ice will lower polar bear populations and limit their distribution

2007-10-01 Channel 4 - Record-breaking Arctic sea ice melt

2007-10-01 Live Science - Record low Arctic sea ice confirmed

2007-10-01 Science Mode - Arctic Sea Ice Plummeted To Lowest Levels, 50% since 1950s

2007-10-02 New York Times – Arctic melt unnerves the experts

2007-10-02 Reuters, UK – Scientists see dramatic drop in Arctic sea ice

2007-10-02 United Press Intl (UPI) - Arctic sea ice shatters record low

2007-10-03 CO2 Science - Declining Arctic Sea Ice: Has a "Tipping Point" Been Passed?

2007-10-04 The Planetary Society – Record Arctic sea ice loss

2007-10-11 Climate Change – Arctic sea ice heading for rapid disintegration

2007-10-24 CNN – Greenland’s ice sheet melts as temperatures rise

2007-10-22 In The News, UK – Arctic ice reaches record low$1142887.htm

2007-10-24 NASA – Astounding Arctic sea ice melt (video)

2007-10-29 AGU - Arctic sea ice decline: faster than forecast

2007-10-30 NASA – Astounding video: Arctic sea ice loss 1970-2007

2007-12 YouTube - Melting Arctic sea ice

2007-12-11 Seattle Times - 'The Arctic is screaming' — summer sea ice could be gone in five years

2007-12-12 C/Net - Record heat sweeps Arctic Sea, ice in 2007

2007-12-12 China View - Arctic summer sea ice may disappear in 5 years

2007-12-12 National Geographic - Arctic sea ice gone in summer within 5 years?

x2007-12-12 The Daily Green - Arctic Sea Ice Re-Freezing at Record Pace

2007-12-12 Philadelphia Enquirer - A huge drop in sea ice sparks plea: 'The Arctic is screaming'

2007-12-12 Science Daily - Greenland melt accelerating

2007-12-13 Live Science – Magma may be melting Greenland ice

2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY) full proposal details

2007-2008 International Polar Year (IPY) – Monitoring the drift, thickness and mass balance of Arctic sea ice

2008 Arctic sea-ice monitor by AMSR-E

2008-01 MSNBC - Arctic sea ice shrinking faster, NASA finds

2008-01-01 Cryosphere Today – 1978-2007 Historic sea ice data (daily)

2008-01-01 NOAA - Northern hemisphere ice charts, GIS, metadata, and coverage files

x2008-01-10 Christian Science Monitor - As Arctic ices melts, South Pole ice grows

2008-01-10 University of Colorado - Older Arctic sea ice replaced by young, thin ice, says CU-Boulder study

2008-01-15 ENN - Greenland suffers from extreme ice melt

2008-01-18 Discovery Channel – Thick, old Arctic ice nearly gone

x2008-02-01 Heartland Institute - Arctic Sea Ice Expanding at Record Pace

2008-02-07 Protection Sought for Pacific Walrus

2008-02-07 The Cryosphere Today

2008-02-07 SOCC – Current Arctic sea ice extent

2008-02-07 Live Science – Video depicting Arctic sea ice shrinkage 1990-2049

x2008-02-08 Mother Jones - Antarctic Sea Ice Increase: Fodder for Global Warming Skeptics?

2008 daily AMSR-E - Daily updated sea ice maps

Anthony Marr, founder
Heal Our Planet Earth (HOPE)